Unit 1: Introduction to surveying • Unit 2: Chain surveying • Unit 3: Measurement of directions and angles • Unit 4: Traversing • Unit 5: Levelling and contouring. Contouring in surveying is the determination of elevation of various points on the ground and fixing For vertical control levelling instrument is commonly used. There are various types of leveling used in surveying for measurement of level difference of different points with respect to a fixed point. This is.

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When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.

Surveying and Leveling

Squares or Grid method. Refractive Index Measurement Principle Refractive Index Measurement Principle Refractive index measurement principle Introduction Detection of liquid concentrations by optical means was already known in antiquity. A Flemish map maker. Thin lenses are ordinary lenses like eyeglasses and magnifiers, but More information.

One report per group is due by. Physics 25 Exam 3 November 3, 1. This is it shows elevations third dimension.

Levelling & Contouring – PDF

The material for the square base of a rectangular box. Arithmetical calculation The graphical method By arithmetical calculation Let A and B be two corners of the squares.


Method of interpolation of contours: Contour lines in U-shape cross a ridge and in V-shape cross a valley at right angles.

Conceptual 1 Given vector A, the vector 3 A A has a magnitude 3 times that. All points on a contour lines have equal elevation. We will use what are referred to as thin lenses.

In these sections, a base line, centre line or profile line is considered. In Galileo used two lenses. Background Geometric Optics This experiment deals with image formation with lenses.

This calculated distance is plotted to the same scale in which the skeleton was plotted to obtain a point of RL of Indirect method of contouring: So, every fifth line will represent 95,, etc.

S Rise Fall R. Open channel flow is not under pressure; gravity is the More information. The fundamental difference between auto level and other levels is that the levelling is not manually but it is levelled automatically.

L Remark A B. Physics 41, Winter Lab 1 – The Current Balance Theory Consider a point at a perpendicular distance d from a long straight wire carrying a current I as shown in figure 1.

Theory and Operation C Accelerometers: The purpose of levelling is to make vertical axis truly vertical. The image is formed at the focus of the telescope, which is simply the focal plane of the. Contouring involves providing of vertical control for location of points on the contours and horizontal control for planimetric plotting of points.

Square or grid method: It should be remembered that the contour interval contoouring a particular map is constant. A slope of zero means More information.


Symbolic reasoning and calculations with symbols are central in algebra. Map Patterns and Finding the Strike and Dip from a Mapped Outcrop of a Planar Surface Topographic maps represent the complex curves of earth s surface with contour lines that represent the intersection. This bench marks are written on permanent objects such as milestones, culverts, bridges levelling their value are clearly written and their position are recorded for future reference.

Special care should be taken to give the spot levels to the salient features of the ground such as hilltops, deepest points of the depressions, and their measurements from respective corners of the grids, contourinv correct depiction of the features.

Levelling & Contouring

Let us consider the lowest radial line OB to represent an RL of A set of ring contours with higher values inside, depicts a hill whereas the lower value inside, depicts a depression without an outlet. It is used in contohring. The Curvature of the Earth may affect the staff readings when the distance of sight is long.

Physics Workshop 7. It is denoted as R.